Let us understand what is ERP Software, the History of SAP, What is ABAP, Roles and responsibilities of ABAP or BASIS or Functional consultants, SAP System Landscape, and SAP R3 Architecture.
What is ERP:
E: Enterprise / Company Ex: Reddy Labs, Reliance, GE, GM, BMW
Man -> employee
Machines -> plants/manufacturing units
Materials -> items/products (raw, semi finished, finished)
Money -> finance (profit/loss)
P: Planning (effective plans for maximum profits with minimum resources)
A Software that is used to maintain and plan all the business activities of a company/enterprise is called ERP software.
The business activities are :
•How many customers/vendors/materials
•How many sales orders/delivery orders/invoice
•How much profits/loss
•How many employees/leaves/provident funds/income tax
•How many plants/stock available/stock damaged etc.
The various ERP softwares are:
• Used by small companies
• Supports less number of business applications/scenarios/programs
• Supports less number of business modules
•Less cost software
• Very good at HR module
• Used by medium-sized companies
• Supports a limited number of business applications
• Supports a limited number of business modules
• High-cost software
• Very good at finance (FI) module
It stands for Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing
•It is an ERP software which is used by medium-sized as well as top MNC’s
• SAP supports every business scenario/application commonly used in business
• SAP supports almost every Business module in the business (around 45+
•Very high-cost software
•It is excellent at integration between all the SAP modules
•Various Technical products are available from SAP like
• BW/BI/BO, XI/PI , WebDynpro Abap/Java, EP, NWBC etc.
• So, SAP doesn’t depend on any other Non SAP module
•We can’t do any black business in SAP (i.e., the information is stored in a secured way where you can’t do any black business)
History of SAP:
Let us know the History of SAP.
•In 1972, five IBM employees started a company by name SAP AG
•Their objective was to develop a business software or ERP software
•In 1980 the company released the first ERP software by name SAP R/2, where R stands for real time and 2 stands for two tier architecture
•In 1990 the company released advanced version of SAP R/2 by name SAP R/3, where 3 stands for three tier architecture
•Even today also we are using SAP R/3
What is ABAP?
Abap stands for ADVANCED BUSINESS APPLICATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE.
It is a 4th generation language, which is why it is written as ABAP/4. The entire ERP software is developed by using a single programming language which is called ABAP.
Once we have good knowledge of ABAP, we can work on any SAP module.
We have various business modules in SAP. Some of them are :
SD : sales and distribution
MM : material management
FI : finance
CO : controlling
HR : human resources
CRM : customer relation management
SRM : supply relation management
SCM : Supply chain management
APO : Advanced Planner and Optimizer
Functional Consultants: A consultant who is responsible for configuring the real time
business scenarios like how many plants, sales organizations, materials etc in SAP
software is called as functional consultants.
ABAP Consultants: A consultant who is responsible for developing new programs,
screens, tables and customizing standard SAP programs is called as ABAP
BASIS Consultants: A consultant responsible for installing the SAP software,
configuring the servers, controlling network traffic, creating usernames and
passwords etc are called as BASIS consultants.
Roles and responsibilities of ABAP consultants:
Roles of ABAP consultants: Receiving a ticket/Bug in the form of a Functional specification document from TL
Analyze the business requirement as per the given Functional specification
Estimate the number of hours for business requirement
Develop the object
Perform unit testing
Release the developed object to the testing server
Prepare Technical Specification document for object
SAP System Landscape:
Normally, every project in real-time will consist of three SAP System R3 landscapes.
Development Server: A server where all the SAP consultants will be developing the
real-time objects for a business requirement is called a development server. Once the development is finished, we should do a sample testing called unit testing.
Quality Server: A server where all the functional consultants or testing consultants will be testing the developed objects is called a testing server. It is also called as
Production Server: A server where all the developed objects will be used in the live business market to maintain the business is called a production server. It contains the
live business data of customers.
Note: As an ABAP consultant, we will be working only at the development sever, not the quality and production servers. ABAP consultants with more than 4 or 5 years of experience will have the access to quality sever but not a production server.
It is a server where we do our R&D work is called a sandbox server. Everybody will
have access to the sandbox server.
SAP R3 Architecture:
In software engineering, there are 3 SAP System R3 Architecture
• Single-tier architecture
•Two tier architecture
•Three tier architecture
• Single-tier architecture: A system that is responsible for loading the program, compiling, interpreting, executing as well as storing the data in the same system is called single-tier architecture. In simple words, a system responsible for front-end and back-end operations is called single-tier architecture.
Ex: All ‘C’ language programs in the olden days are written using single-tier architecture.
Two-tier architecture: In this architecture, we have two layers, the server layer, and the client layer.
2. a. Sever layer: In this layer, we have a single system with a very high configuration called a server. This server is responsible for executing the programs as well as storing the data.
2. b. Client layer: In this later we have multiple systems which are connected to a server. All the business users will be operating from client systems. The server will receive the request from the client system and gives back the response (i.e. result).
Ex: SAP R/2, Oracle
Disadvantages of two-tier architecture:
•As the number of client systems increases the load on the database server will increase and the response time will be delayed
• Since the response time is delayed the output will be very slow on the client system which is a very big disadvantage
•To overcome this problem we have a new architecture called three-tier architecture
• Three-tier architecture: In this architecture, we have three layers, they are database server layer, application server layer and presentation sever layer.
3. a. Database server layer: A server that is responsible only for storing the data is called the database server layer.
3. b. Application server layer: A server that is responsible for only executing the applications or programs is called the application server layer.
3. c. Presentation server layer: A server that is responsible for just presenting the output and taking the input is called a presentation server layer.
Ex: SAP R/3 architecture.